Howell found that some Iban achieved black by first dyeing their yarns red using with engkerbai leaves Psychotria viridiflora and lime, and then overdyeing them with indigo Howell , ; Linggi , Two Hot Lesbians Housewives Added: The dark, almost ebony, mature leaves of Mrs. The tannin-rich fruits, leaves and bark of the myrobalans have been widely used as both a mordant and a yellow, brown and black dye for both cotton and silk. The pericarps of rambutan contain tannins and saponin Shaw, Chan and Nagy , It is a short erect perennial shrub that rarely exceeds one metre in height and has cream, pink or purple flowers and rough, black, berry-like fruits containing minute seeds. Mud-dyed barkcloth has been or still is a tradition among the more isolated communities of the region, some of whom are the descendants of the earliest immigrants:
By , German powdered aniline dyes had already been in use for 15 years Reinach , The Uma-speaking Tobaku, who had a preference for black barkcloth clothing, obtained a deep, permanent colour by immersing a complete garment in the blackest mud for five or six hours on a muddy riverbank or in a rice field Aragon , Other sources indicate that the ashes of senduduk can be used as a mordant. In one recipe, barks from the ampil toek tamarind water tree and chatra trees are boiled for two hours and cooled. On Sumba, the bark of the evergreen tree Kleinhovia hospita was used to dye yarns black Dammerman , Dyeing takes place throughout the year depending on demand and some mud-dyed yarns are even sold at the local early morning Friday market, just outside Melolo. It seems to have originated in the Malay Peninsula before spreading westwards towards Thailand, Burma and India and eastwards into Indonesia and New Guinea.
American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
Heartwood of ebony tree is black or brownish chocolate brown in color. There is one report that small cans of German dyes were being sold in Waingapu prior to the Second World War Adams , The impact was immediately felt in Java, where prices rocketed — the price of a barrel of alizarin jumped from 63 to 2, guilders Van Dijk , They soon became an article of trade for enterprising local Arab and Endenese merchants. This process was repeated many times until the required dye strength had been achieved and a satisfactory increase in the weight of the silk had been obtained Tab and Rabieb , Elephants, rhinos and giraffes feed on leaves, while velvet monkeys, baboons and warthogs like to eat fruit of ebony tree.
The British Navy forced several Dutch steamers to discharge their cargoes of aniline dyes. The process is repeated to produce darker tones. They boil local leaves in water for two to three hours and either add river mud to the mix or apply the mud to the rattan after it has been steeped in the leaf solution, leaving it to dry overnight. The situation was summarised in an monograph written by J. The upper surface of the leaf blades is medium to dark green and glabrous, while the lower surface is pale green and short-pubescent to nearly glabrous. This situation in the Shan States was corroborated by H. In the presence of oxygen, the ferrous gallate immediately oxidises into ferric gallate: